caspase-14

The Effects of Melatonin on Elevated Liver Enzymes During Statins Treatment

Introduction Statins are widely used in the treatment and prevention of lipid metabolism disorders. They are generally well tolerated but not devoid of side effects. These include, among others, muscular symptoms, arthritis, headaches, gynecomastia. Myositis and rhabdomyolysis associated with increased activity of creatinine kinase and serum creatinine levels are rare but serious adverse events of statin therapy.

  • The risk of these complications is increased in elderly patients with chronic diseases and in alcohol abusers.
  • Furthermore, statins cause hepatotoxic effect which is observed in several percent of treated patients, usually in the first weeks of the therapy . Most frequently it is manifested by asymptomatic increase in the level of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase.
  • This is usually a temporary increase, but in some patients the level of these enzymes exceeds 3 times the normal limit, which is a matter of concern. In such cases, patients expect the decision to discontinue the treatment or to administer hepatoprotective drugs.
  • Acetylcholine, sylibinin, phospholipids and other drugs used for this purpose are not always effective. Therefore, there is still search for alternative drugs for the protection of liver.

In own study melatonin was used for this purpose because previous experimental studies had demonstrated that it protected liver against harmful effects of many toxic agents as well as the consequences of ischemia-reperfusion model.

The liver is an organ in which there comes to intensive metabolic and detoxification processes. In their course large amounts of reactive oxygen species are generated and they exert a toxic effect on hepatocytes.
A complex antioxidant system – in which metabolized there melatonin (pineal and from other sources) is an important part – prevents that.

The main melatonin metabolic pathway in the liver is through hydroxylation pathway at the C-6 position by 6-hydroxylase and P450 cytochromes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2P19, CYP1B1 isozymes). The 6-hydroxymelatonin, formed in this process, is conjugated with sulphate and glucuronide to 6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate or glucuronide. In this process melatonin and its metabolites exert high antioxidant activity.

An alternative metabolic pathway includes melatonin oxidation to N-acetyl-formyl-5- methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK). The kynurenine pathway of melatonin metabolism leads to formation of a series of free radical scavengers.

Furthermore, melatonin decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits hepatic fibrogenesis. Owing to its multidirectional action in liver, apoptosis and necrosis decrease, the integrity is protected and regeneration is improved.

caspase-14

caspase-14

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The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of melatonin in counteracting the adverse hepatic events from statins.

Material and Methods Patients and Data Collection The research program included 30 subjects, aged 47-68 years, 41 women and 23 men. All women were I the postpostmenopausal period. Recruitment and diagnostic tests were conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology, Medical University of Lodz and Outpatient Consulting Clinic “Gastro” in Lodz.

The research study was performed in the years 2012-2016. Therapeutic Procedures After inclusion into the study, all patients were recommended the same balanced diet with limited animal fats and simple carbohydrates of caloric content of 1600 kcal. At the same time, they were recommended to continue the treatment with the same statin at a daily dose of 20 mg.

The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I (n=30) was recommended to take statin together with melatonin (LEK-AM, Poland) at a dose of 2×5 mg, at 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. In Group II (n=30) patients took statin with placebo (LEK-AM, Poland) at the same dose and time of the day.

Follow-up laboratory tests (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, cholesterol and triglycerides) were evaluated after 2,4 and 6 months of treatment.

Ethical procedures A written consent was obtained from the patients and the Bioethics Committee of the Medical University in Lodz approved the study protocol (RNN/45/12/KB).

Tests were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and with the principles of Good Clinical Practice.

Statistical analysis All parameters were checked for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Wilcoxon’s rank sum test was used for the comparison of basal treatment differences between each liver enzyme level.

 

Comparison of parameters in four time series was calculated using ANOVA Friedman test. Mann-Whitney U test was used for nonparametric data to perform the comparison between groups. Calculation were made using Statistical 9.1 Microsoft Co. software, and statistical significance was established at p< 0,05.

Acknowledgments This work was supported by the grant from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education No: NN 402 54 37/40.

Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Antibody (ACE)

R31319 100 ug
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Description: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), also called DCP or CD143 is a zinc-containing dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase widely distributed in mammalian tissues and is though to play a critical role in blood pressure regulation. This gene is mapped to 17q23.3. This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II.

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E08A2159-192T 192 tests
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E08A2159-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
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E08A2159-96 1 plate of 96 wells
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Description: Available in various conjugation types.

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Active Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE)

4-APA004Hu02
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  • 100 ug
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Description: Recombinant Human Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme expressed in: Available from E.coli, Yeast, Baculovirus and Mammalian cells

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Description: Biotin-Conjugated, FITC-Conjugated , AF350 Conjugated , AF405M-Conjugated ,AF488-Conjugated, AF514-Conjugated ,AF532-Conjugated, AF555-Conjugated ,AF568-Conjugated , HRP-Conjugated, AF405S-Conjugated, AF405L-Conjugated , AF546-Conjugated, AF594-Conjugated , AF610-Conjugated, AF635-Conjugated , AF647-Conjugated , AF680-Conjugated , AF700-Conjugated , AF750-Conjugated , AF790-Conjugated , APC-Conjugated , PE-Conjugated , Cy3-Conjugated , Cy5-Conjugated , Cy5.5-Conjugated , Cy7-Conjugated Antibody

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Assay Kit

abx295084-100g 100 µg Ask for price

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Assay Kit

abx295084-20g 20 µg
EUR 437.5

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Assay Kit

abx295084-50g 50 µg Ask for price

Goat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E01A43886 96T
EUR 700
Description: ELISA

Goat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E06A2159-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Goat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E06A2159-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Goat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E06A2159-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Goat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx103103
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  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx103104
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  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx103105
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  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx128667
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  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx129494
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  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx129607
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  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx140499-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 427.2

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx007362
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  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx037354-100ug 100 ug
EUR 469.2

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx033685-400ul 400 ul
EUR 627.6

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx033685-80l 80 µl
EUR 343.2

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx025482-100ul 100 ul
EUR 627.6

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx270178
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  • 100 tests
  • 200 tests
  • 25 tests
  • 500 tests
  • 50 tests

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx270179
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  • 100 tests
  • 200 tests
  • 25 tests
  • 500 tests
  • 50 tests

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx214211
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  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx230080-100ug 100 ug
EUR 577.2

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx175391
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  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx175393
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  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx171229
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  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx171230
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  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx171231
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  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx171232
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  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx171233
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  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx325361
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  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx328371
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  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx159297-100ul 100 ul
EUR 560.4

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx241080
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  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx241081
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  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

20-abx241727
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  • Ask for price
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E01A2159-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E01A2159-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E01A2159-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E01A17707 96T
EUR 700
Description: ELISA

Mouse Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E03A2159-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Mouse Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E03A2159-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Mouse Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E03A2159-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive for quantitative measurement of Mouse Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Sheep Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E01A96179 96T
EUR 700
Description: ELISA

Human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ELISA kit

E01A0202 96T
EUR 700
Description: ELISA

Rabbit Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme ELISA

KT-51711 96 tests
EUR 998

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8895-100UG 100ug
EUR 424.15
Description: Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. [UniProt]

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8895-20UG 20ug
EUR 186.15
Description: Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. [UniProt]

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8895SAF-100UG 100ug
EUR 424.15
Description: Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. [UniProt]

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8490-100UG 100 ug
EUR 424.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8490-20UG 20 ug
EUR 186.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8490SAF-100UG 100 ug
EUR 424.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8534-100UG 100 ug
EUR 424.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8534-20UG 20 ug
EUR 186.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8534SAF-100UG 100 ug
EUR 424.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8535-100UG 100 ug
EUR 424.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8535-20UG 20 ug
EUR 186.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

ACE Antibody / Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme

V8535SAF-100UG 100 ug
EUR 424.15
Description: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Two most abundant alternatively spliced variants of this gene encode two isozymes - the somatic form and the testicular form that are equally active. Multiple additional alternatively spliced variants have been identified but their full length nature has not been determined.

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx007261-100g 100 µg
EUR 275

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx007261-10g 10 µg
EUR 175

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx007261-200g 200 µg
EUR 400

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx103103-100l 100 µl
EUR 237.5

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx103103-1ml 1 ml
EUR 600

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Antibody

abx103103-200l 200 µl
EUR 287.5
Dylan